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Table 1 Characteristics of ED users vs. non- ED users

From: Emergency room use after being released from incarceration

Variables Has ever use ED Never use ED t, df or χ2( df) p- value
n = 417 n = 924
Mean (SD) or% Mean (SD) or%
Age 40.8 (11.21) 40.5 (11.59) -.47, 1338 .6381
Race     
  Black 45.19 43.29 5.33 (3) .1488
  Whites 33.17 29.33   
  Hispanics 14.66 18.72   
  Others 6.97 8.66   
Has a history of incarceration 76.26 66.34 13.31 (1) .0003
Has ever had STIs* 49.53 40.30 10.21 (1) .0014
Has ever traded sex for drugs or money 38.73 29.01 12.68 (1) .0004
Opiate use 16.78 11.73 6.52 (1) .0107
Injection drug use 28.81 23.13 5.05 (1) .0247
Income     
< $1,000 78.77 66.71 18.18 (2) .0001
$1,000 -$3,999 18.49 24.57   
> $3,999 2.74 8.71   
Had paid job, salary, or business 21.5 31.92 15.14 (1) .0001
On welfare, public assistance 39.23 32.24 6.15 (1) .0131
Had Social Security, disability 30.99 20.78 16.31 .0001
Heterosexual 67.69 61.59 4.68 (1) .0305
Marital status     
Single 53.63 63.68 13.49 (2) .0012
Married 20.14 17.41   
Separated/divorced 26.23 18.91   
Education     
Less than High School 29.84 27.19 6.64 (2) .0361
High School 37.53 32.94   
Some college or above 32.63 39.87   
Homeless 47.04 41.04 4.28 (1) .0386
Female 32.08 22.95 12.79 (1) .0003
Has ever received drug treatment 60.42 48.56 16.54 (1) .0001
  1. Note: *include hepatitis B, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts (HPV), chlamydia, and genital herpesMen: .5959 (.1663), χ2 = 12.84, p = .0003.