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Table 1 Description of potential predictors of time to re-incarceration and number of participants with missing data (N=1325)

From: Health-related factors predict return to custody in a large cohort of ex-prisoners: new approaches to predicting re-incarceration

Variable Description 1 (Number with missing data out of full sample)
Demographic  
  Age Age at release, categorised into three groups: 18 to 24 years, 25 to 39 years, and 40 years and above (0)
  Female Female gender (0)
  Indigenous Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander (0)
Criminal justice  
  Prior adult incarceration Any prior incarcerations aged ≥17 years (2)
  Juvenile incarceration Any incarcerations aged <17 years (13)
  Any income from illegal       activities Any income from illegal activities in the four weeks before incarceration (2)
  Longer sentence (≥6 months) QCS records (0)
  Drug-related sentence Drug related sentence according to QCS records (13)
Substance use
  High risk drinking Scored ≥16 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Babor et al. 2001), indicating high risk drinking to possible alcohol dependence, with reference to drinking in the year before prison (11)
  Risky cannabis use Scored ≥4 on the cannabis section of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) (Humeniuk et al. 2010), indicating moderate to high risk use, with reference to drug use in the three months before prison (1)
  Risky amphetamine use Scored ≥4 on the amphetamine section of the ASSIST, indicating moderate to high risk use, with reference to drug use in the three months before prison (2)
  Risky opioid use Scored ≥4 on at least one of the heroin section or the other opiates section of the ASSIST, indicating moderate to high risk use, with reference to drug use in the three months before prison (3)
Mental health
  History of self-harm Any history of self-harm, including attempted suicide (0)
  CNS medications Central Nervous System (CNS) medication (defined according to (MIMS 2014)) prescription at time of baseline interview, according to QCS health records accessed with participant consent (94)
  Screens positive for       intellectual disability At least two of: scored <84.5 on the Hayes Ability Screening Index (HASI) (Hayes 2000); attended a special school; has been diagnosed with an intellectual disability (22)
  High psychological distress Scored ≥22 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, indicating high to very high psychological distress (Kessler et al. 2002) (5)
Physical health
  Two or more chronic illnesses Ever been diagnosed with at least two of: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes, epilepsy or cancer/tumours (0)
  Low physical health   functioning Scored ≤50.8 (the 25th percentile of the sample) on the SF-36 Version 2 Physical Component Summary measure (Ware et al. 2000), Australian T-normed scores (ABS 1997) (20)
  Obese BMI > 30kg/m2, where BMI = weight/height2, weight and height from averages of two measurements taken by trained interviewers at baseline interview (7)
  Sedentary Fortnightly exercise participation <100 minutes (4)
  Any STI Ever been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (0)
Social support
  Not married or de-facto Not married or in a de-facto relationship at time of baseline interview (0)
  No visits in past four weeks Not visited in prison by any community contacts in the four weeks prior to baseline interview (0)
  Low perceived social support Scored ≤2 on at least two of five items and a total score of ≤18 (ENrICHD Investigators 2001) on the five item ENrICHD Social Support Inventory (Mitchell et al. 2003) (4)
  Taken from family as child Ever taken away from family as a child (3)
Health involvement
  Low patient activation Scored ≤55.1 on the Patient Activation Measure, indicating lack of motivation to take an active role in own health care or lack of knowledge and confidence to do so (Hibbard et al. 2004) (13)
  Physical health not important Reports that it is not very or not at all important to maintain own physical health after release (2)
  Mental health not important Reports that it is not very or not at all important to maintain own mental health after release (2)
Socioeconomic
  Less than ten years schooling Less than 10 years of school attended (4)
  Below poverty line Income in 4 weeks before incarceration below poverty line according to a published Australian standard (MIAESR 2014), accounting for dependents and marital status (2)
  Unstable housing No stable accommodation in the month prior to incarceration (0)
  Unemployed No part-time, full-time or casual employment in the 6 months prior to incarceration (0)
  1. 1Variables are from participant self-report unless otherwise stated.