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Table 3 Hazard ratios from Cox proportional hazards regression on time to re-incarceration

From: Health-related factors predict return to custody in a large cohort of ex-prisoners: new approaches to predicting re-incarceration

Variable Univariate models Full model Reduced model \( \varDelta {\boldsymbol{R}}_{\boldsymbol{adj}}^2 \) (95%CI)
HR (95%CI) AHR (95%CI) AHR (95%CI)
(N = 1122) (N = 1143)
Demographic     0.013 (0.000, 0.035)
  Age (years)     
   18-24 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.) 1.00 (ref.)
   25-39 0.86 (0.73, 1.01) 0.77 (0.63, 0.95) 0.78 (0.64, 0.95)
   40+ 0.36 (0.28, 0.45) 0.50 (0.37, 0.68) 0.51 (0.38, 0.69)
  Female 0.79 (0.66, 0.96) 0.72 (0.56, 0.93) 0.72 (0.57, 0.92)
  Indigenous 1.75 (1.50, 2.05) 1.22 (0.98, 1.52) 1.22 (0.99, 1.51)
Criminal justice     0.072 (0.044, 0.113)
  Prior adult incarceration 3.42 (2.81, 4.17) 2.42 (1.89, 3.10) 2.43 (1.91, 3.11)  
  Juvenile incarceration 2.10 (1.80, 2.45) 1.54 (1.27, 1.88) 1.51 (1.25, 1.82)
  Any income from illegal activities† 2.20 (1.87, 2.59) 1.43 (1.11, 1.83) 1.39 (1.10, 1.76)
  Longer sentence (≥6 months) 1.01 (0.88, 1.17) 0.88 (0.74, 1.05) 0.90 (0.75, 1.07)
  Drug-related sentence 1.79 (1.54, 2.08) 1.39 (1.15, 1.67) 1.38 (1.15, 1.66)
Substance use     0.008 (-0.007, 0.034)
  High risk drinking† 1.40 (1.20, 1.63) 1.12 (0.93, 1.34) 1.12 (0.94, 1.34)  
  Risky cannabis use† 2.03 (1.75, 2.36) 1.28 (1.07, 1.54) 1.27 (1.06, 1.51)
  Risky amphetamine use† 2.17 (1.87, 2.51) 1.24 (1.02, 1.51) 1.20 (0.99, 1.46)
  Risky opioid use† 2.17 (1.85, 2.55) 1.32 (1.08, 1.63) 1.33 (1.08, 1.63)
Mental health     0.023 (0.001, 0.046)
  History of self-harm 1.00 (0.85, 1.18) 0.70 (0.57, 0.86) 0.72 (0.59, 0.88)  
  CNS medications 1.20 (1.02, 1.41) 1.29 (1.07, 1.57) 1.28 (1.06, 1.54)
  Screens positive for intellectual disability 1.37 (1.17, 1.60) 1.16 (0.96, 1.40) 1.15 (0.96, 1.38)
  High psychological distress 1.01 (0.86, 1.20) 0.89 (0.73, 1.10) 0.92 (0.76, 1.13)
Physical health     0.011 (-0.002, 0.034)
  Two or more chronic illnesses 0.75 (0.65, 0.87) 0.87 (0.72, 1.04) 0.85 (0.71, 1.01)  
  Low physical health functioning 0.84 (0.71, 1.00) 0.99 (0.80, 1.23) -
  Obese 0.59 (0.48, 0.72) 0.81 (0.64, 1.02) 0.81 (0.64, 1.02)
  Sedentary 0.86 (0.73, 1.02) 0.82 (0.67, 1.00) 0.82 (0.68, 1.00)
  Any STI 1.18 (1.00, 1.38) 1.20 (0.98, 1.46) 1.18 (0.98, 1.43)
Social support     0.000 (-0.008, 0.016)
  Not married or defacto 1.18 (1.01, 1.37) 1.07 (0.88, 1.29) 1.06 (0.88, 1.28)  
  No visits in past 4 weeks 1.58 (1.36, 1.83) 1.12 (0.93, 1.34) 1.14 (0.95, 1.37)
  Low perceived social support 1.29 (1.08, 1.55) 1.10 (0.88, 1.37) 1.06 (0.85, 1.31)
  Taken from family as child 1.35 (1.13, 1.61) 0.88 (0.70, 1.09) 0.87 (0.70, 1.08)
Health involvement     0.002 (-0.008, 0.024)
  Low patient activation 1.41 (1.19, 1.68) 1.13 (0.92, 1.38) 1.14 (0.94, 1.39)  
  Physical health not important 1.83 (1.26, 2.65) 1.61 (0.98, 2.64) 1.52 (0.98, 2.36)
  Mental health not important 1.63 (1.08, 2.48) 0.88 (0.51, 1.52) -
Socioeconomic     0.003 (-0.005, 0.018)
  Less than 10 years schooling 1.52 (1.31, 1.76) 1.00 (0.83, 1.19) -  
  Unstable housing† 1.29 (1.08, 1.53) 1.09 (0.89, 1.34) 1.08 (0.88, 1.31)
  Unemployed† 1.61 (1.39, 1.87) 0.93 (0.77, 1.13) -
  Below poverty line† 1.05 (0.91, 1.22) 1.29 (1.04, 1.60) 1.24 (1.02, 1.52)
  1. †prior to index incarceration.