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Table 3 Summary of included articles

From: Exploring barriers to and enablers of adequate healthcare for Indigenous Australian prisoners with cancer: a scoping review drawing on evidence from Australia, Canada and the United States

Study Study design Location Health focus Issues identified
Courtwright et al. (2008) Case report United States Lung cancer • Security identified as a barrier to providing equitable healthcare
• Healthcare team unable to notify family of patient status
• Prisoner unable to engage in activities usually allowed to enhance comfort (television, going outside to smoke, speaking to hospital chaplain)
• Cultural conflict between prison & health care system
Lin and Mathew (2005) Quantitative survey study United States Cancer; pain management • Inadequate pain management
• The majority of prisoners with cancer may be under-medicated
• Training in cancer pain management as poor or fair by 74 % of Primary Care Practitioners (PCPs)
• Common barriers identified by PCPs include concerns about drug misuse/diversion & concerns about patient credibility
Lum (2003) Commentary New Zealand Palliative care (cancer identified as most common diagnosis) • Treatment often isolating; prisoners may choose to forego
• Restricted availability of medical professionals
• Prison regulations take precedence over care services (e.g. visitors)
• Excessive caution regarding the prescription of medication
Markman (2007) Commentary United States Cancer • High prevalence of drug abuse made pain management an issue
• Unscheduled interruptions in treatment due to sudden transfer or release
Mathew et al. (2005) Case control study United States Cancer • Pain management problematic due to high prevalence of drug misuse
• Terminal illness didn’t guarantee parole
O’Connor (2004) Case report United States Lung cancer; mental health • Late diagnosis due to prisoner’s complaints not being heard
• Prison staff acted in the absence of informed consent from patient
• Acting as both representative of the prison and the prisoner presented a dilemma for the service provider
Pillet (2010) Commentary United States Cancer • Privacy vs. security (guard was always present)
• Limited communication between family and practitioners
• Family visitation limited
• Due to security, practitioners restricted in range of usual activities, including establishing rapport
Wujcik (2010) Commentary United States Cancer • Goal of oncology team may be in contrast to prison system
• Delays in diagnosis & staging compromised outcomes