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Table 3 Motivational interviewing and cognitive skills for drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental illness

From: Interventions for drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental health problems: a systematic review and economic appraisal

Outcomes Illustrative comparative risks* (95 % CI) Relative effect (95 % CI) No of Participants (studies) Quality of the evidence (GRADE)
Assumed risk Corresponding risk
Control Motivational interviewing and cognitive skills
Self report drug use continuous Follow-up: mean 3 months -- The mean self report drug use continuous in the intervention groups was 7.42 lower (20.12 lower to 5.28 higher) -- 162 (1 study) low
Self report drug use dichotomous
Follow-up: mean 3 months
Study population RR 0.92 (0.36 to 2.33) 41 (1 study) very low
364 per 1000 335 per 1000 (131 to 847)
Moderate
364 per 1000 335 per 1000 (131 to 848)
  1. *The basis for the assumed risk (e.g. the median control group risk across studies) is provided in footnotes. The corresponding risk (and its 95 % confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95 % CI)
  2. CI confidence interval
  3. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence
  4. High quality: Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect
  5. Moderate quality: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate
  6. Low quality: Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate
  7. Very low quality: We are very uncertain about the estimate