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Table 5 Therapeutic community for drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental illness

From: Interventions for drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental health problems: a systematic review and economic appraisal

Outcomes Illustrative comparative risks* (95 % CI) Relative effect (95 % CI) No of Participants(studies) Quality of the evidence (GRADE)
Assumed risk Corresponding risk
Control Therapeutic community
Criminal activity - Re-arrests
Follow-up: mean 12 months
117/340 (34.4 %) 167/458 (36.5 %) 1st study: 1.65 [0.83, 3.28]
2nd study:0.96 [0.82, 1.13]
798 (2 studies) moderate
Criminal activity - Re-incarceration
Follow-up: mean 12 months
71/283 (25.1 %) 47/353 (13.3 %) 1st study:0.28 [0.13, 0.63]
2nd study:0.73 [0.45, 1.19]
3rd study:0.49 [0.27, 0.89]
636 (3 studies) moderate
  1. *The basis for the assumed risk (e.g. the median control group risk across studies) is provided in footnotes. The corresponding risk (and its 95 % confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95 % CI)
  2. CI confidence interval
  3. GRADE Working Group grades of evidence
  4. High quality: Further research is very unlikely to change our confidence in the estimate of effect
  5. Moderate quality: Further research is likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and may change the estimate
  6. Low quality: Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimate of effect and is likely to change the estimate
  7. Very low quality: We are very uncertain about the estimate