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Table 1 Participant characteristics and modified poisson regression associations with poor psychiatric well-being among incarcerated men who reported regular injecting drug use prior to their current sentence (n = 317)

From: The associations of poor psychiatric well-being among incarcerated men with injecting drug use histories in Victoria, Australia

  GHQ-12
(≥3)
(n = 139)
GHQ-12
(≤2)
(n = 178)
ORa (95%CI) aORb (95%CI)
Socio-demographic
Age
  ≤ 30 38 (27) 48 (28) 1 1
 31–40 65 (47) 66 (38) 1.15(0.88–1.51) 1.33 (0.97–1.82)
  ≥ 41 36 (26) 59 (34) 0.88 (0.64–1.21) 1.08 (0.73–1.60)
Number of years of education completed
  ≤ 9 years completed 58 (42) 78 (44) 1 1
  ≥ 10 years completed 81 (58) 100 (56) 1.23 (0.95–1.59) 1.18 (0.90–1.56)
Accommodation status
 Stable 72 (52) 94 (53) 1 1
 Unstable 67 (48) 84 (47) 0.96 (0.76–1.21) 0.98 (0.77–1.26)
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander identification
 No 109 (78) 151 (85) 1 1
 Yes 30 (22) 27 (15) 0.82 (0.63–1.07) 0.90 (0.67–1.22)
Health
Number of medical conditions
 None 26 (19) 64 (36) 1 1
 One 42 (30) 60 (34) 1.51 (1.06–2.17)** 1.33 (0.90–1.98)
  ≥ Two 71 (51) 54 (30) 1.93 (1.39–2.67)** 1.87 (1.30–2.67)**
Hepatitis C status
 Negative/Don’t know 55 (40) 58 (33) 1 1
 Positive 84 (60) 120 (67) 0.96 (0.69–1.08) 0.92 (0.71–1.18)
Ever attempted suicide
 No 54 (39) 110 (62) 1 1
 Yes 85 (61) 68 (38) 1.59 (1.27–2.00)** 1.36 (1.03–1.78)*
Acquired brain injury
 No 109 (78) 148 (83) 1 1
 Yes 30 (22) 30 (17) 1.19 (0.92–1.55) 1.02 (0.76–1.37)
Criminological
Level of Service Inventory (M, SD) 5.64 (1.32) 5.31 (1.46) 1.08 (1.00–1.16) 1.08 (0.96–1.21)
Prison type
 Maximum 75 (54) 77 (43) 1 1
 Medium 38 (27) 53 (30) 0.86 (0.66–1.11) 0.95 (0.72–1.26)
 Minimum 26 (19) 48 (27) 0.71 (0.53–.96)* 0.96 (.66–1.41)
Number of previous adult incarcerations
 0–3 44 (32) 51 (29) 1 1
  ≥ 4 95 (68) 127 (71) 0.89 (0.70–1.11) 0.84 (0.63–1.11)
Youth detention ever
 No 72 (52) 63 (35) 1 1
 Yes 67 (48) 115 (65) 1.05 (0.84–1.31) 0.99 (0.73–1.35)
Alcohol and other drug use
Illicit substances usedc
 Heroin only 22 (16) 41 (23) 1 1
 Methamphetamine only 46 (33) 74 (42) 1.54 (1.08–2.19)* 1.52 (1.05–2.22*)
 Both heroin and methamphetamine 71 (51) 63 (35) 1.07 (0.72–1.58) 0.96 (0.63–1.48)
High risk alcohol consumptiond
 No 98 (71) 133 (75) 1 1
 Yes 41 (29) 45 (25) 0.99 (0.77–1.27) 1.00 (0.75–1.33)
Age first injected
  ≤ 16 69 (50) 76 (43) 1 1
 17–20 36 (26) 59 (33) 0.93 (0.72–1.21) 0.88 (0.64–1.20)
  ≥ 21 34 (24) 43 (24) 0.94 (0.71–1.25) 1.00 (0.74–1.34)
Poly-drug injecting drug usee
 No 47 (34) 63 (35) 1 1
 Yes 92 (66) 115 (65) 1.12 (0.87–1.44) 1.09 (0.81–1.47)
Adverse childhood experiences
Removed from home as a child ever
 No 94 (68) 137 (77) 1 1
 Yes 45 (32) 41 (23) 1.28 (1.01–1.61)* 1.13 (0.83–1.54)
Expelled from school ever
 No 40 (29) 64 (36) 1 1
 Yes 99 (71) 114 (64) 1.21 (0.94–1.57) 1.05 (0.76–1.46)
  1. Note: P values: * = p < .05; ** = p < .001; a OR = Odds ratio; b aOR = Adjusted odds ratio; cAt least one use, by any route of administration, in the week before their current sentence; dThe 12 months before their current sentence; e The week before their current sentence