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Table 3 Items and other indicators associated (p < 0.05) with future self-harm by gender

From: Assessing the predictability of self-harm in a high-risk adult prisoner population: a prospective cohort study

Variable (Odds Ratios refer to affirmation of variable) p-value OR CI Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV
Male Risk Factors
Prisoner has no qualifications (no qualifications = 1) 0.001 2.335 1.409–3.872 62.10% 58.80% 36.00% 80.60%
BSL1. In the last week it was hard for me to concentrate 0.017 > 100 not calculated 100% 6.50% 27.80% 100%
BSL S8. During the last week I had uncontrollable sexual encounters of which I was later ashamed or which made me angry 0.028 8.475 0.869–82.65 3.60% 99.60% 75% 73.90%
Ever Self-Harmed in prison 0 3.423 1.967–5.958 75.90% 52.10% 37.10% 85.30%
Index ACCT due to Self-Harm? 0 3.42 1.986–6.836 71.40% 59.60% 46.70% 80.80%
SHI2. Have you ever cut yourself on purpose? 0 3.075 1.604–5.894 84.10% 36.70% 32.20% 86.60%
PQuest2. In the past year have you been taking longer over the things you do? 0.024 2 1.086–3.685 80.70% 32.30% 29.90% 82.40%
Ever received medication for mental health problems 0.023 1.981 1.091–3.596 80.50% 32.50% 30.70% 81.70%
SHI19. Have you ever exercised an injury on purpose? 0.045 1.858 1.007–3.427 25.30% 84.60% 37.50% 75.60%
PQuest1. In the past year have you previously seen a psychiatrist? 0.018 1.821 1.105–3.001 54.70% 60.20% 33.80% 78.10%
Acquisitive Crime (Burglary, Robbery, Theft) 0.043 1.712 1.015–2.89 38.80% 73.00% 34.40% 76.60%
Male Protective Factors
Age left full time education (16+ = 1) 0.034 0.578 0.348–0.962 37.60% 48.90% 21.30% 68.10%
SHI6. Have you ever Abused alcohol? 0.028 0.559 0.332–0.941 57.80% 28.90% 22.90% 65.30%
Dependent on alcohol 0.013 0.497 0.284–0.867 24.10% 60.90% 18.80% 68.30%
CORE19. Over the last week I have felt warmth or affection for someone (with scoring reversed) 1 = Less than all the time 0.003 0.476 0.288–0.786 49.40% 32.80% 21.60% 63.30%
Female Risk Factors
Life or indefinite sentence 0 8.4 2.479–28.46 32.40% 94.60% 75% 73.70%
SHI2. Have you ever cut yourself on purpose? 0.01 4.795 1.331–17.269 91.90% 29.70% 39.60% 88%
PHQ-9-7. Over the last 2 weeks - Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper or watching television 0.04 4.449 0.96–20.619 94.60% 20.30% 37.20% 88.20%
PQuest8. In the past year have you recently heard voices saying a few words or sentences when there was no one around to account for this? 0.001 4.19 1.768–9.928 73% 60.80% 48.20% 81.80%
CORE 25. Over the last week I have felt criticised by other people 0.003 3.544 1.501–8.366 73% 56.80% 45.80% 80.80%
SHI3. Have you ever Burned yourself on purpose? 0.011 3.145 1.269–7.793 37.80% 83.80% 53.80% 72.90%
Ever Self-Harmed in prison 0.05 3.056 0.96–9.723 89.20% 27% 37.90% 83.30%
Index ACCT due to Self-Harm? 0.017 2.9 1.189–7.084 63.30% 62.70% 43.20% 79.20%
SHI8. Have you ever Scratched yourself on purpose? 0.015 2.708 1.203–6.096 59.50% 64.90% 45.80% 76.20%
SHI10.Have you ever made medical situations worse on purpose (e.g. skipped medication)? 0.017 2.664 1.174–6.044 51.40% 71.60% 47.50% 74.60%
BSL S4. During the last week I had episodes of binge eating 0.031 2.609 1.079–6.309 37.80% 81.10% 50% 72.30%
SHI21. Have you ever starved yourself to hurt yourself? 0.022 2.588 1.132–5.918 67.60% 55.40% 43.10% 77.40%
SHI9. Have you ever prevented wounds from healing? 0.032 2.41 1.071–5.419 62.20% 59.50% 43.40% 75.90%
BSL 15. Over the last week I suffered from voices and noises from inside or outside my head 0.032 2.41 1.071–5.419 62.20% 59.50% 43.40% 75.90%
Female Protective Factor
First time on an ACCT? 0 0.224 0.096–0.523 36.10% 28.40% 19.70% 47.70%