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Table 1 Breaking Free Online content

From: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the Breaking Free Online Health and Justice program for substance misuse in prison settings

Strategies included in Breaking Free Online Description of strategy Therapeutic approaches underpinning strategies BCT taxonomy (V1) techniques (number in taxonomy)
Lifestyle balance model (individualized diagram) Generic formulation; Idiosyncratic formulation; Personalized feedback; Case formulation – understand the links between situations, thoughts, emotions, behaviors, physical sensations and lifestyle Node-link mapping (International Treatment Effectiveness Program (ITEP); Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Information about antecedents (4.2); Information about health consequences (5.1); Salience of consequences (5.2); Information about social and environmental consequences (5.3); Information about emotional consequences (5.6)
Understanding your difficult situations Assessment; Self-monitoring; Standardized measures; Psycho-education on impact of problematic situations; Intervention to help people in distress access support All structured therapeutic approaches; Psycho-education; Guided self-help Social support (unspecified) (3.1); Reduce negative emotions (11.2)
Managing your risky situations: Recognize– avoid–cope Recognize–avoid–cope; Relapse prevention for coping with environmental/situational/emotional triggers; Creating action plans on how to avoid or cope in high risk situations Relapse prevention; Refusal skills Problem solving (1.2); Action planning (1.4); Instruction on how to perform a behavior (4.1); Behavioral practice/rehearsal (8.1); Behaviour substitution (8.2); Avoidance/reducing exposure to cues for the behavior (12.3); Goal setting (behavior) (1.1); Problem solving (1.2); Action planning (1.4)
Understanding your negative thoughts Psycho-education on impact on negative thoughts Psycho-education; Guided self-help Information about antecedents (4.2); Information about health consequences (5.1); Salience of consequences (5.2); Information about social and environmental consequences (5.3); Information about emotional consequences (5.6)
Escaping your mind traps Mind traps; Cognitive restructuring; Challenge thoughts that may be unhelpful International Treatment Effectiveness Program (ITEP); Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Re-attribution (4.3); Framing-reframing (13.2)
Understanding your emotions Psycho-education on impact on emotions Psycho-education; Guided self-help Information about antecedents (4.2); Information about health consequences (5.1); Salience of consequences (5.2); Information about social and environmental consequences (5.3); Information about emotional consequences (5.6)
Shifting your focus Attention narrowing; Attention switching; Emotional regulation; Recognize/understand/normalize emotions; Developing more appropriate coping strategies Coping strategy enhancement (CSE); Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy Information about emotional consequences (5.6); Behavioral practice/rehearsal (8.1); Reduce negative emotions (11.2); Problem solving (1.2); Social support (unspecified) (3.1); Behavioral practice/rehearsal (8.1); Distraction (12.4)
Understanding your physical sensations Psycho-education on impact of physical sensations Psycho-education; Guided self-help Information about antecedents (4.2); Information about health consequences (5.1); Salience of consequences (5.2); Information about social and environmental consequences (5.3); Information about emotional consequences (5.6)
Surfing your cravings and urges Urge surfing; Body scanning; Relapse prevention-based techniques Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy Instruction on how to perform a behavior (4.1); Behavioral practice/rehearsal (8.1); Reduce negative emotions (11.2)
Understanding your unhelpful behaviors Psycho-education on impact of destructive behaviors Psycho-education; Guided self-help Information about antecedents (4.2); Information about health consequences (5.1); Salience of consequences (5.2); Information about social and environmental consequences (5.3); Information about emotional consequences (5.6)
Planning your time positively Activity scheduling; Behavioral activation; Encourage new behaviors via positive feedback; Increase activity to increase energy levels and relieve boredom Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Non-specific reward (10.3); Non-specific incentive (10.6); Reward approximation (14.4); Rewarding completion (14.5); Goal setting (behavior) (1.1); Action planning (1.4)
Understanding your lifestyle Psycho-education on impact of lifestyle; Creating SMART goals for recovery Psycho-education; Guided self-help Goal setting (behavior) (1.1); Problem solving (1.2); Goal setting (outcome) (1.3); Action planning (1.4)
Achieving your life goals Goal-setting Increase treatment engagement and retention. Increase readiness to change behavior Motivational enhancement therapy (MET); Implementation intentions Non-specific reward (10.3); Focus on past success (15.3); Action planning (1.4)
Progress check Monitor behavior to provide feedback about progress towards goals; Encourage new behaviors via positive feedback Self-monitoring Self-monitoring of behavior (2.3); Feedback on outcome(s) of behavior (2.7)
Information on alcohol and drugs Psycho-education on effects of alcohol and drugs; Reduce negative or fatal consequences of substance using behaviors Harm reduction; Psycho-education Information about health consequences (5.1); Salience of consequences (5.2); Behaviour substitution (8.2); Habit reversal (8.4)