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Table 5 Models for Assessing Vulnerability (Vuln) - LEPH. Presentation of articles containing models for assessing vulnerability from Law Enforcement and Public Health perspectives

From: Defining and assessing vulnerability within law enforcement and public health organisations: a scoping review

# Author/Name/Date Research Country Research Context Model(s) for Vuln Assessment Vuln Associated with
1 Beach et al. (2013) US - New York LE (arrest, incarceration, forensic, community treatment); PH (psychiatric hospitalization) Four risk factors used to assess and predict vulnerability. They include the risk of incarceration or arrest, homelessness, premature discharge from assertive community treatment, psychiatric hospitalization. Forensic histories and high-risk population.
2 Cohen (2016) US LE (counter-terrorism, homeland security); PH (mental health) The prevention approach which is currently adopted by some local communities. It assesses vulnerable individuals by identifying those at risk of committing acts of terrorism and intervenes before it happens. Law enforcement encouraged to work with mental health at this early stage. (Risk management and collaborative working - co-creation of value) The paper recommends that investigative and violence prevention protocols by federal agents should include behavioural risk assessment techniques. Also multidisciplinary teams comprising community, law enforcement, and mental health should be established to encourage holistic, structured and cohesive collaboration.
3 Damsere-Derry et al. (2017) Ghana LE (police); PH Vulnerability assessed based on level of exposure to the risk of traffic-related injuries and death. Risk of death
4 Kerr & Jackson (2016) US LE (Criminal Justice - inequitable sentencing and policing); PH (Impact of drug war on HIV vulnerability) Based on three pathways, the authors developed a Drug War AIDS/HIV inequities model developed to assess how HIV vulnerability in African Americans can increase as a result of the drug war. The pathways are sexual networking, social marginalization and resource deprivation. HIV
5 Slade et al. (2016) UK - England and Wales LE (Criminal Justice); PH (mental health) Mental health vulnerability assessed via the National improvements in prison mental health services, and diversion and liaison services provided in police stations and courts. Based on clinical need, liaison services include communications with hospitals, communities, or prison services. Diversion services involves referring identified vulnerable groups to either a hospital bed or community service. Mental health disturbances
6 Wilson (2016) Australia LE (criminal justice - police, court services); PH (social care) Appropriate screening, Vulnerability was also assessed using the Social Vulnerability Questionnaire, developed by Fisher, Moskowitz, & Hodapp, 2012; the Test of Interpersonal Competence and Personal Vulnerability, developed by Wilson, Seaman, & Nettelbeck, 1996; and the Decision-making Video Scale, developed by Hickson, Khemka, Golden, & Chatzistyli, 2008. Weakness and helplessness