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Table 3 Domain two: social organizations literature review

From: The role of the community health delivery system in the health and well-being of justice-involved women: a narrative review

Source Study Description Purpose Results
Social
 Abbott P, Magin P, Lujic S, Hu W. Supporting continuity of care between prison and the community for women in prison: a medical record review. Aust Health Rev. 2017 Jul; 41 (3): 268–276 A retrospective review of medical records of 212 medical records of women who were in for at least 6 weeks or more and released from correctional facilities. To examine health information transfer and continuity of care arrangements between prison and community health care providers for women in prison. At release, continuity of care arrangements and health information transfer to general practitioners were usually linked to formal pre-release healthcare linkage programs. At release, only 20% of records had evidence of such continuity of care at release.
 Abbott PA, Magin P, Davison J, Hu W. Medical homelessness and candidacy: women transiting between prison and community health care. Int J Equity Health. 2017; 16: 130. A qualitative study including interviews of 69 incarcerated women 40 pre-release and 29 post-release in Australia. To examine the ways in which women in contact with the prison system experience access to health care, particularly those with histories of problematic substance misuse. Long wait lists impeded the ability for prisoners to get health needs met. The dual stigma of being a prisoner and drug user lead to provider adjudication and dismissal of women’s concerns are not being legitimate.
 Bandara, S.N., Huskamp, H.A., & Riedel, L.E. (2015). Leveraging the affordable care act to enroll justice-involved population in Medicaid: state and local efforts. Health Affairs (Millwood), 34, 20,044–2051 A quantitative survey was administered to collect information on whether the programs’ jurisdictions used any of four specific policy approaches to facilitate Medicaid enrollment. To characterize the national landscape of programs enrolling criminal justice–involved populations in Medicaid as of January 2015 The authors identified sixty-four programs that enrolled justice-involved individuals in Medicaid during detention, incarceration, or the release process. Fifty-seven of these were in states that had chosen to expand Medicaid, and seven were programs that targeted disabled populations and operated in states that had not expanded Medicaid as of January 2015.
 Berger, L.M., Cancian, M., Cuesta, L. & Noyes, J. (2016). Families at the Intersection of the Criminal Justice and Child Protective Services Systems. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci. 2016 May; 665 (1): 171–194. A longitudinal data analysis of 2013 Multi-Sample Person File to describe intergenerational and intragenerational overlap in the two systems. To examine both intergenerational and intragenerational overlap in incarceration and child protective services (CPS) involvement. 8% of all children experiencing a screened-in report had a parent in state prison at some point during 12 months following the report. Over 15% of adults in prison had one or more CPS- involved children and just almost 6% had children in OHP.
 Broner N, Lang M, Behler SA. The Effect of Homelessness, Housing Type, Functioning, and Community Reintegration Supports on Mental Health Court Completion and Recidivism. Journal of Dual Diagnosis 2009;5:323–356. A quantitative study that analyzes the self-reported quality of life and social support, chart diagnosis, and administrative housing, services, and criminal justice data collected from 589 Bronx Mental Health Court participants for 12 months following diversion. To examine whether community stability indicators predict program completion and delay re-arrest for homeless versus non-homeless mental health court participants. Mental health court was generally beneficial to mental health court participants. However, for those previously homeless, functioning and social support may play a unique and interconnected role in court graduations, whereas general life satisfaction may be a better indicator for program completion for non-homeless individuals.
 Bronson, J. & Berzosky, M. (2017). Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners and Jail Inmates, 2011–12. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/imhprpji1112.pdf. A report on the mental health problems among state and federal prisoners and local jail inmates. To examine the prevalence of the two mental health indicators by different time periods, demographics, criminal justice history, and current offenses. Among state and federal prisoners and local jail inmates. The percentage of prisoners who met the threshold for serious psychological distress (14%) was more than three times that of adults in the standardized total U.S. general population (5%) or those in the standardized general U.S. population with no criminal involvement in the past year (4%)
 Celinska K, Siegel JA. Mothers in Trouble: Coping With Actual or Pending Separation From Children due to Incarceration. The Prison Journal 2010;90:447–474. 74 semi-structured interviews with mothers before trial and during incarceration to document coping strategies employed to deal with potential or actual separation from their children. To document coping strategies employed to deal with potential or actual separation of women from their children. Seven strategies emerge being a good mother, mothering from prison, role redefinition, disassociation from prisoner identity, self-transformation, planning and preparation, and self-blame. The findings show that mothers used multiple strategies and tended to employ emotion-focused and adaptive coping techniques.
 Clark N, Dolan K, Farabee D. Public health alternatives to incarceration for drug offenders. EMHJ 2017, 23 No. 3. A review that examines alternative approaches to drug offenses internationally as it recognizes the high costs and negative returns on incarceration. To identify the public health alternatives to high costs and negative returns associated with imprisonment. 30 countries reformed drug policies to permit forms of decriminalization allowing for fewer people in prison, reducing criminal justice costs, redirecting law enforcement towards serious and violent crimes, minimizing social exclusion. A systematic review of drug courts found that participants
 Cobbina JE, Morash M, Kashy DA, Smith SW. Race, Neighborhood Danger, and Coping Strategies Among Female Probationers and Parolees. Race and Justice 2014;4:3–28. A three-part mixed methods study using 402 drug- involved women on probation or parole recidivism. To examine whether residential segregation & related restriction of Blacks to areas of concentrated disadvantage is apparent without correctional population and explore self-directed efforts to cope with neighborhood crime & views of strategy effectiveness. Black women reported more types of criminal activity in neighborhoods than white women. Black women lived in census tracts with higher disadvantages & lower affluence, stability than did white. Of the 295 women that described their neighborhood as unsafe, 86% had strategies women used to avoid offending.
 Dekeseredy WS, Alvi S, Tomaszewski EA. Perceived collective efficacy and women’s victimization in public housing. Criminal Justice 2003; 3:5–27. Quantitative analysis of 325 quality of neighborhood life survey questionnaires completed at 6 public housing estates and distributed to 1200 households. To conceptualize why women in neighborhoods with poverty and limited employment report higher rates of victimization. 35% respondents reported hardly ever get together with neighbors, 78% do not belong to any social clubs, 42% said drugs are easy to access in residence, 25% reported being targeted for violence, and 27% reported having been victims of at least one of the four types of public/sexual harassment
 Dishon-Brown AF, Golder S FAU - Renn T, Renn TF, Winham KF, Higgins GE FAU, Logan TK. Childhood Victimization, Attachment, Coping, and Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole. A quantitative study of multivariate regression models of data on 406 women on parole or probation. To investigate the relationship between attachment, coping, childhood victimization, substance use, and IPV among 406 victimized women on probation/parole. Childhood sexual victimization and negative coping were significant in all analysis.
 Freudenberg N, Daniels J, Crum M, Perkins T, Richie BE. Coming Home From Jail: The Social and Health Consequences of Community Reentry for Women, Male Adolescents, and Their Families and Communities. Am J Public Health 2008;98: S191- S202. Randomized trial and evaluation of a case management and social support intervention designed to reduce drug use and rearrests among incarcerated women and male adolescents in New York City. To describe the living conditions of people released from urban jails; to examine individual, community, and policy factors associated with post- release drug use and criminal activity; and to consider the implications of these findings for public policies related to reentry into the community from jail. For men (mean age = 17) having a job, health insurance and marijuana use were associated with lower rearrests rates. Previous arrests, substance abuse, & having many peers regularly attending school/work were all more likely of being rearrested. For women: factors associated with rearrests were drug/ETO related social problems since release, homelessness, and previous arrest.
 Golder S, Hall MT, Logan TK et al. Substance Use Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole. Substance Use & Misuse 2014; 49:435–447. The study examined among 406 victimized women on probation and parole in an urban community from 2010 to 2013. To examine substance use among women on parole or probation. 93% of women reported lifetime use of an illicit substance, whereas 58% and 45% reported the use of at least one illicit substance in the past 2 years and 12 months, respectively.
 Hager, E., Flagg, A. (2018). How Incarcerated Parents are Losing Their Children Forever. Retrieved from https://www.themarshallproject.org/2018/12/03/how-incarcerated-parents-are-losing-their-children-forever. A report highlighting incarcerated mothers and fathers who have children placed in foster care process of regaining parental rights. To provide examples of how incarcerated parents are losing their children. Mothers and fathers who have a child placed in foster care because they are incarcerated are more likely to have their parental rights terminated than those who physically or sexually assault their kids. According to a Marshall Project analysis of approximately 3 million child-welfare cases nationally.
 Huebner BM, DeJong C, Cobbina J. Women Coming Home: LongTerm Patterns of Recidivism. Justice Quarterly 2010;27:225–254. Logistical and Survival analysis of data collected from a sample of 506 women released from prison in 1998 through May 2006. To examine the long-term patterns of recidivism among a large, diverse sample of women released from prison in one state The study found that women who are drug dependent, have less education, or have more extensive criminal histories are more likely to fail on parole and to recidivate more quickly during the eight-year follow-up period.
 Jason LA, Salina D, Ram D. Oxford recovery housing: Length of stay correlated with improved outcomes for women previously involved with the criminal justice system. Substance Abuse 2016;37:248–254. Randomized study of 200 women assigned to either the Oxford house recovery homes or usual care. To examine the influence of recovery homes on a sample of former female substance-using women with criminal justice involvement. Those with longer stays in the Oxford home had better outcomes in terms of alcohol and drug use, employment, and self-efficacy than those with shorter stays.
 Lam H, Harcourt M. The Use of Criminal Record in Employment Decisions: The Rights of Ex-offenders, Employers and thePublic. Journal of Business Ethics 2003;47:237–252. A review of legal approaches available for providing such protection by examining the diversity of approaches adopted in the federal and state jurisdictions of Australia. To examines the need for legal protection of ex-offenders by limiting employer’s access to, and use of, information on criminal background. The argument against accessing records state that ability to deny someone employment based on record is an unjustified extension of legal punishment and pushes them towards crime.
 La Vigne N, Davies E, Palmer T, Halberstadt R. Release Planning for Successful Reentry A Guide for Corrections, Service Providers, and Community Groups. Urban Institute, editor. 2. 2008. Washington, DC, Urban Institute, Justice Policy Center. 10-2-2017. A national survey of state correctional departments, a complimentary scan of practice, and a literature review on the topic of release planning. To assist corrections agencies and their community partners in developing and improving their release planning procedures. Corrections agencies must assess and incorporate an inmate’s strengths, weaknesses, and needs into one comprehensive document that the inmate can both understand and follow.
 McCarty M, Falk G, Aussenberg RA, Carpenter DH. Drug Testing and Crime- Related Restrictions in TANF, SNAP, and Housing Assistance. Journal of Drug Addiction, Education, and Eradication 2012;8:71–98. Report-describes the similarities & differences in federal policies governing drug & crime related restrictions in TANF, SNAP, & housing assistance programs. To highlight a current set of crime- and drug-related restrictions in federal assistance programs inconsistencies. There is an overall absence of evidence of the impact and effectiveness of crime- and drug-related restrictions in federal assistance programs. In part, the challenge is identifying the desired objectives of crime- related restrictions in federal assistance programs. Literature, however, does reveal how these policies become barriers for women on parole or probation and instead facilitate recidivism.
 Metraux S, Culhane DP. Homeless Shelter Use and Re- incarceration Following Prison Release. Criminology & Public Policy 2004;3:139–160. Survival analysis of time since prison release and history of residential instability. To examine the incidence of and interrelationships between shelter use and re-incarceration among women released from prison. Within two years of release, 11.4% of the study group was again imprisoned. Using survival analysis methods, time since prison release and history of residential instability were the most salient risk factors related to shelter use and shelter use increased the risk of subsequent re-incarceration.
 Nargiso JE, Kuo CC, Zlotnick C, Johnson JE. Social Support Network Characteristics of Incarcerated Women with Co- Occurring Major Depressive and Substance Use Disorders. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 2014;46:93–105. Descriptive statistics and paired- tests were conducted on 60 incarcerated MDD- SUD women receiving in- prison substance use and depression treatments. To characterize the women’s social networks, including the strength of support, network characteristics, and types of support provided as well as to determine what aspects of social support may be amenable to change during incarceration and post-release. On average, women perceived they had supportive individuals in their lives, although more than a quarter of the sample could not identify any regular supporters in their network at baseline.
 O’Brien P. Maximizing Success for Drug-Affected Women After Release from Prison. Women & Criminal Justice 2007;17:95–113. Literature review and qualitative study of formerly detained or incarcerated drug- affected women. To describe some of the correlates of drug-affected women and their involvement in the criminal justice system and findings from a study of drug-convicted African-American women who returned from prison to an economically disinvested community in Chicago. Recommendations are suggested when working with formerly incarcerated women reentering the community: 1) a comprehensive and multidimensional assessment of psychological, social, and educational needs prior to release; 2) assistance with identifying family issues for family conferencing and negotiation; and 3) closer attention to job placement that enables women to gain income and gradual
experience in the labor market.
 Parsons ML, Warner-Robbins C. Factors That Support Women’s Successful Transition to the Community Following Jail/Prison. Health Care for Women International 2002;23:6–18. A qualitative study that utilizes open- ended interview questions of women who participate in Welcome Home Ministries, a new community faith-based program for women released from jail/prison. To describe factors that support women’s successful transition to the community following incarceration. The role of support groups and their sisters in welcome home ministries, the nurse- chaplains jail visit and support, and the role of supportive friends (not former drug using friends) were additional key factors that help in successful transition.
 Ramirez R. Reentry Consideration for Justice- Involved Women. 2016. The National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women. 11–29-2017. NA To document the critical differences— and by adopting gender-informed strategies shown by research to meet women’s unique needs—institutional corrections and community supervision agencies can maximize the success of women re-entering the community and improve the safety of both communities and correctional settings. Key factors that have emerged in various women’s pathways to crime include experiences of abuse or trauma, poverty and marginalization, mental health disorders, substance abuse, and dysfunctional relationships.
 Rogers E. Diversion Programs in America’s Criminal Justice System. 3–30. 2015. Washington DC, The Center for Prison Reform. 10-1-2017. Review of diversion programs in 17 US states. To examine the diversion program effectiveness on behaviorally correct lawbreakers, ensuring they do not offend again. Jail diversion programs and other forms of alternative sentencing are an effective substitute for jail.
 Salem BE, Nyamathi A, Idemundia F, Slaughter R, Ames M. At a Crossroads: Reentry Challenges and Healthcare Needs among Homeless Female Ex- Offenders. J Forensic Nurs 2013;9:14–22. A qualitative study evaluating focus groups of 14 female ex- offenders enrolled in a residential drug treatment program in Southern California. To understand the unique gendered experiences of homeless female ex- offenders, in the context of healthcare needs, types of health services sought, and gaps in order to help them achieve a smooth transition post-prison release. Homeless female ex-offenders have a myriad of healthcare challenges, knowledge deficits, and barriers to moving forward in life, which necessitates strategies to prevent relapse.
 Shinkfield AJ, Graffam J. Community Reintegration of Ex-Prisoners. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2009; 53:29–42. Qualitative 79 prisoners (54 male & 25 female) were interviewed one month prior to release, 36 were interviewed one to four weeks post-release 19 three to four-month post- release. To examine the multiple, complex, and dynamic nature of variables influencing successful reintegration by assessing the type and degree of change in reintegration variables over time. Perceived physical health was better initially following the release. Housing stability was high over the post-release period.
 The Lion Heart Foundation. Houses of Healing. Retrieved from https://lionheart.org/prison/state-by-state-listing-of-re-entry-programs-for-prisoners/. A state-by-state listing of re- entry programs for prisoners. A compiled a list of reentry programs below, listed by state, to help people connect with the services or contacts they might need. The Lionheart Foundation’s Houses of Healing program has had a life-changing impact for thousands of the men and women across the country involved in the criminal justice system, providing them with the skills needed for successful reentry into the community.
 Visher CA, Travis J. Transitions from Prison to Community: Understanding Individual Pathways. Annu Rev Sociol 2003;29:89–113 (Visher & Travis, 2003). A review of literature on reentry failures. To summarize what we know about the four specified dimensions and how they affect an individual’s transition from prison to community. The review concludes with a call to the research community for interdisciplinary, multilevel, longitudinal studies of the processes of reintegration for former prisoners. Such research may illuminate many dimensions of social life, including the effects of recent social policies.
 Walter RJ, Viglione J, Tillyer MS. One Strike to Second Chances: Using Criminal Backgrounds in Admission Decisions for Assisted Housing. Housing Policy Debate 2017;27:734–750. Applies recidivism research to the use of criminal histories for assisted housing admission policies and procedures This research examines several questions critical to assisting housing providers to address the new guidance from HUD. Findings provide direction for housing providers on understanding recidivism risk rates, using useful lookback periods, considering risk and harm across crime types, and verifying rehabilitation and other evidence to design informed policies and procedures for using criminal records in admission decisions for assisted housing.
 Warner-Robbins C, Parsons ML. Developing Peer Leaders and Reducing Recidivism Through Long-Term Participation in a Faith-Based Program: The Story of Welcome Home Ministries. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 2010; 28:293–305. Welcome Home has provided service to more than 300 women per year who have been released from jail or prison into San Diego County communities. To examine the effectiveness of welcome home ministries in assisting women through the change process and reduce recidivism. To date, more than 80% of the women we have served have been able to sustain their recovery and avoid additional offenses requiring a return to jail or prison. Welcome Home has helped women go to college, embark on careers in drug and alcohol counseling or nursing, and reunite with their families.
 Willging CE, Nicdao EG, Trott EM et al. Structural Inequality and Social Support for Women Prisoners Released to Rural Communities. Women Crime Justice. 2016; 26 (2): 145–164. In-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups with women prisoners in underserved rural communities. To examine the return of women prisoners to underserved rural communities, while attending to the perspectives of their closest social supporters. Rural women being released from prison and their closest social supporters, particularly family, appeared to internalize expectations that they take singular responsibility for their own wellbeing.
 Worden, R. E., & McLean, S. J. (2018). Discretion and Diversion in Albany’s Lead Program. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 29 (6–7), 584–610. Semi-structured interviews were administered to officers and surveys were conducted with officers. To examine the exercise of officers’ discretion in making LEAD diversions by analyzing eligible incidents to estimate the effects of offense-, suspect-, and officer-related variables on discretionary decisions, and by analyzing semi structured interviews with officers. Diverted arrests stemmed (with one exception) from four types of offenses: drug possession; theft (shoplifting); trespassing; and alcohol offenses (open container or public consumption). Only 77% of the LEAD participants had any criminal history.
 Wolff N. Community reintegration of prisoners with mental illness: A social investment perspective. Int J Law Psychiatry 2005;28:43–58. Profiles 2715 male special needs population in New Jersey prisons. To describe behavioral health and criminal justice characteristics of 2715 male inmates with mental health problems, and identify the scope and nature of the public’s investment opportunity. Approximately 67% were identified as having a serious mental illness. 26.4% were diagnosed with schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders; 41.1% with major depression, major mood disorder, or bipolar; 16.8% with depression, dysthymia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, PTSD; 12.8% with panic disorder, anxiety disorder, somatoform disorders, impulse control disorders, or ADD/ADHD; and 3.4% had an Axis II diagnosis only.
 Zeoli AM, Rivera EA, Sullivan CM, Kubiak S “Post-separation abuse of women and their children: Boundary-setting and family court utilization among victimized mothers”: Erratum J Fam Violence. 2013 Aug 1; 28 (6): 547–560. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 mothers who had divorced IPV-perpetrating husbands between one and three years prior. Participants were located through publicly available family court divorce records and interviews were examined using analytic induction. To examines women’s responses to abuse committed by ex-husbands with whom they had undergone custody disputes. Mothers often turned to family court for assistance in setting boundaries to keep children safe, but found that family court did not respond in ways they believed protected their children. Conversely, when women turned to the justice system for restraining orders or called the police for help against IPV, they generally found the justice system responsive.