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Table 4 Domain Three: Healthcare Organizations Literature Review

From: The role of the community health delivery system in the health and well-being of justice-involved women: a narrative review

Source Study Description Purpose Results
 Bandara SN, Huskamp HA, Riedel LE et al. Leveraging The Affordable Care Act To Enroll Justice-Involved Populations In Medicaid: State And Local Efforts. Health Aff (Millwood) 2015;34:2044–2051. A review of 64 programs operating in jails, prisons, or community probation and parole systems that enroll individuals during detention, incarceration, and the release process was conducted. To describes four practices that have facilitated the Medicaid enrollment process: suspending instead of terminating Medicaid benefits upon incarceration, presuming that an individual is eligible for Medicaid before the process is completed, allowing enrollment during incarceration, and accepting alternative forms of identification for enrollment. Seventy-seven percent of the programs are located in jails, and 56% use personnel from a public health or social service agencies.
 Bracken, N., Hilliard, C., McCuller, W. J., & Harawa, N. T. (2015). Facilitators of HIV Medical Care Engagement Among Former Prisoners. AIDS education and prevention: official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education, 27 (6), 566–583. Qualitative focus groups to understand factors that facilitated linkage to and retention in HIV care following their release. To conduct seven focus groups with recently incarceration individuals in a California State prison to understand those factors that facilitated linkage to and retention in HIV care following their release. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: 1) interpersonal relationships, 2) professional relationships, 3) coping strategies and resources, and 4) individual attitudes. Improving HIV-related outcomes among individuals after their release from prison requires strengthening supportive relationships, fostering the appropriate attitudes and skills, and ensuring access to resources that stabilize daily living and facilitate the process of accessing care.
 Braithwaite RL, Treadwell HM, Arriola KRJ. Health Disparities and Incarcerated Women: A Population Ignored. Am J Public Health 2008;98: S173-S175. Editorial: The explosion of female inmates over the last 3 decades. To highlight a criminal justice system that was designed for men by men, rendering needs of women largely ignored. Two-thirds of incarcerated women have children younger than 18 years old and women are more likely to be a single head of households- which make the family units & children collateral damage. Women tend to receive more severe citation despite not being near as violent as men.
 Colbert AM, Sekula LK FAU Zoucha R, Zoucha RF, Cohen SM. Health care needs of women immediately post- incarceration: a mixed methods study. Public Health Nurs. 2013 Sep- Oct;30 (5):409–19. A mixed methods study: (1) a quantitative survey; and (2) qualitative interviewers with 34 women post-release. To examine the health status of women with a recent history of incarceration and explore if or how women were accessing health care resources at the time immediately following the release. The major health issues identified by participants included specific health problems affected by incarceration, mental health needs, routine health promotion and maintenance, recovery from substance abuse as a major health concern, and social and environmental barriers to care.
 Dias ER, da Silva Junior GB.Evidence-Based Medicine in judicial decisions concerning the right to healthcare. Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2016; 14:1–5. A qualitative study of 19 Brazilian court decisions related to the right to health care taking into consideration. To analyze, from the examination of decisions issued by Brazilian courts, how evidence-based medicine was applied and if it led to well founded decisions, searching the best scientific knowledge. 32% (6) were made in reaction to public authorities, 68% (13) were made relative to healthcare insurance plans. 18 of 19 of the decisions were favorable to Plaintiffs. Only 10 decisions demonstrated discussions regarding the suitability of the medication or procedure as per best scientific evidence.
 Enard KR, Ganelin DM. Reducing Preventable Emergency Department Utilization and Costs by Using Community Health Workers as Patient Navigators. J Healthcare Manag 2013;58:412–428. A nonequivalent comparison the group, quasi-experimental study design including pretest and posttest observations at 12 and 24 months for the intervention group and a nonrandomized control group with similar characteristics. To examine a patient navigation program designed to promote appropriate primary care utilization and prevent or reduce Primary care- related emergency department use at Memorial Hermann Health System in Houston, Texas. The patient navigation intervention was associated with decreased odds of returning to the ED among less frequent PCR-ED users.
 Erlyana E, Fisher DG, Reynolds GL. Emergency room use after being released from incarceration. Health Justice 2014; 2:5 (Erlyana, Fisher, G., & Reynolds, 2014). The Risk Behavior Assessment and Risk Behavior Follow-Up Assessment were administered to 1341 participants who were seeking STI testing and used the the emergency department in the last 3 months. To provide insight into the associated costs of healthcare for previously incarcerated persons and the need for drug treatment during their incarceration. 31% used ED. Compared to those who did not use ED, those who did were more likely to have a history of incarceration (76% v 66%), a longer average time in jail, and ever-traded sex for drugs, & more likely to be opiate users.
 Fox, A. D., Anderson, M. R., Bartlett, G., Valverde, J., Starrels, J. L., & Cunningham, C. O. (2014). Health outcomes and retention in care following release from prison for patients of an urban post-incarceration transitions clinic. Journal of health care for the poor and underserved, 25 (3), 1139–1152. A retrospective cohort study that investigates care delivery and health outcomes for recently released prisoners. To evaluate medical care delivery at an urban post-incarceration transitions clinic focusing on timely access to medical care, health outcomes, and retention in care for formerly incarcerated persons who were recently released from prison. The median number of days between release from prison and the first medical visit was 10 days and 54% were seen within two weeks of release.
 Hirsch MB. Health Care of Vulnerable Populations Covered by Medicare and Medicaid. Health Care Finance Rev 1994;15:1–5. A discussion of articles published in this issue of the Health Care Financing Review, entitled “Health Care Needs of Vulnerable Population”. To discuss articles cover the following vulnerable population subgroups: pregnant women and children, persons with AIDS, the disabled, and the elderly. Issues covered in this collection include: expenditures, demographic factors, Medicaid and Medicare policy, service use, medical procedures, and data collection The collection of articles uses data from multiple sources and covers issues relevant to vulnerable population subgroups that are beneficiaries of the financing programs Health Care Finance Administers.
 Kelly PJ, Hunter J, Daily EB, Ramaswamy M. Challenges to Pap Smear Follow-up among Women in the Criminal Justice System. J Community Health 2017;15–20 In-depth interviews with 44 women in the urban county jail. To explore experiences with Pap tests and how they follow-up with abnormal results. Women with criminal justice histories have numerous and complex challenges in following-up abnormal Pap test results, as well as other health problems. Four themes emerged: 1) Pap test abnormality; 2) unstable lives; 3) the structural challenges of money; and 4) competing demands.
 Pager D. The Mark of a Criminal Record. American Journal of Sociology 2003;108:937–975 (Pager, 2003). Experimental audit approach on the consequences of incarceration for the employment outcomes of black and white job seekers. To formally test the degree to which a criminal record affects subsequent employment opportunities. A criminal record presents a major barrier to employment, with important implications for racial disparities.
 Ramaswamy M, Upadhyayula S, Chan KYC, Rhodes K, Leonardo A. Health Priorities among Women Recently Released from Jail. American Journal of Health Behavior 2015;39:222–231 Semi-structured interviews with 28 previously incarcerated women post-release. To identify the priorities of women recently released from jail, and in particular, the context in which they set these priorities against other reentry concerns. Three key themes emerged: 1) competing priorities after release from jail- children and employment, 2) health as a low priority- and barriers of transportation and money, and 3) context in which women used healthcare- indicated that
health was a priority. 15.4% of women reported using ED for medical
 Roth A, Fortenberry JD FAU Van Der Pol B, Van Der Pol BF et al. Court-based participatory research: collaborating with the justice system to enhance sexual health services for vulnerable women in the United States. The mixed-methods study includes semi-structured interviews and focuses group discussions that were used to explore health-seeking behaviors, perceived gaps in services and components of court based screening program. To examine a court-based program and how it facilitates justice-involved women to get sexually transmitted infections screening and other health services. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) principals aided in research question development & equitable processes. Individual & socio-structural sources of health disparities considered.
 Ryan J, Pagel L, Smali K. Connecting the Justice- Involved Population to Medicaid Coverage and Care: Findings from Three States. 2016. The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Telephone interviews conducted with a range of stakeholders in early 2016 to provide a brief overview of initiatives to connect the justice-involved population to Medicaid coverage and care in three states—Arizona, Connecticut and Massachusetts. To examine programs and services that connect justice-involved women to Medicaid. Supported by strong leadership, commitment, and close collaboration across agencies, the initiatives in these states have led to increased coverage, facilitated access to care, and contributed to gains in administrative efficiencies and state savings.
 Springer SA. Improving Healthcare for Incarcerated Women. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2010; 19:13–15. Editorial of an article by Nijhawan et al. To highlight an article by Nijhawan et al. that evaluated the important aspects of identifying preventive healthcare needs of incarcerated women. Upon incarceration, important screening and prevention services should be offered universally to all prisoners, including immediate STD screening, cervical cancer screening with Pap smears, and breast cancer screening with mammograms.