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Table 2 Health and health care characteristics of patients identified by correctional/family keywords and all patients (ages 0–21) in electronic health record (EHR) database from February 2006–2020

From: Unjust: the health records of youth with personal/family justice involvement in a large pediatric health system

Health Diagnoses, Health Characteristics, and Health Care Use Patients with Correctional Keywords in the EHR
n = 51,855
All Patients in Database
N = 2,337,632
% of All Patients with Correctional Keyword*
(na/nb)
  na % nb % %
Physical Health
Acute upper respiratory infection-related 20,740 40.00% 194,575 8.30% 10.66%
Allergic rhinitis-related 11,572 22.32% 86,781 3.70% 13.33%
Anemia-related 6636 12.80% 18,682 0.80% 35.52%
Mild intermittent asthma-related 12,781 24.65% 120,353 5.10% 10.62%
Cardiac murmur-related 2533 4.88% 28,589 1.20% 8.86%
Congenital heart disease-related 222 0.43% 2732 0.12% 8.13%
Dermatitis-related 16,559 31.93% 130,379 5.60% 12.70%
Developmental disorders of speech and language - related 261 0.50% 1537 < 0.001 16.98%
Elevated blood-pressure reading –related 3625 6.99% 21,724 0.92% 16.69%
Failure to thrive - related 3456 6.66% 27,336 1.20% 12.64%
Obesity- related 8514 16.42% 65,976 2.80% 12.90%
Otitis media-related 19,232 37.09% 215,198 9.20% 8.94%
Overweight- related 3995 7.70% 28,613 1.20% 13.96%
Psychiatric Health
Alcohol disorder-related 191 0.37% 445 0.02% 42.92%
Adjustment disorder-related disorders 4567 8.81% 15,916 0.68% 28.69%
Anxiety related disorders 11,799 22.75% 64,224 2.70% 18.37%
Attention-deficit & hyper related disorders 13,151 25.36% 57,886 2.50% 22.72%
Bipolar -related 1884 3.63% 6921 0.30% 27.22%
Cannabis disorder -related 672 1.30% 1015 0.04% 66.21%
Conduct disorder- related 5952 11.48% 18,254 0.80% 32.61%
Major depressive- related 7194 13.87% 25,048 1.10% 28.72%
Nicotine disorder -related 79 0.15% 167 0.01% 47.31%
Psychosis related 836 1.61% 2222 0.10% 37.62%
Post-traumatic stress-related 4121 7.95% 8618 0.37% 47.82%
Substance use disorder - related 173 0.33% 321 0.01% 53.89%
Suicide or suicidal - related 7021 13.54% 21,408 0.92% 32.80%
Trauma-related disorder -related 1260 2.43% 2431 0.10% 51.83%
Social and Environmental
 Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (Z77.22) 4291 8.27% 21,042 0.90% 20.39%
 Screening for STIs (Z11.3) 2284 4.40% 18,309 0.80% 12.47%
 Encounter for routine child health examination with abnormal findings (Z00.121) 4944 9.53% 32,805 1.40% 15.07%
 Unspecified lack of expected physiological development (R62.50) 2895 5.58% 21,739 0.90% 13.32%
 Child in welfare custody (Z62.21) 1836 3.54% 4424 0.20% 41.50%
 Caregiver refusal of immunization (Z28.82) 1329 2.56% 8144 0.30% 16.32%
Health Care Use**
 Level 4 Office Visit (CPT 99214)- Office or other outpatient visit for the evaluation and management of an established patient, which requires at least 2 of the 3 CPT qualifying components. 30,139 58.14% 292,761 12.5% 10.29%
 Level 5 Emergency Department Visit (CPT 99285): Emergency department visit for the evaluation and management of a patient, which requires these 3 key components within the constraints imposed by the urgency of the patient’s clinical condition and/or mental status. 20,825 40.17% 161,713 6.90% 12.88%
  1. Notes: Authors’ analysis of electronic health record data of a large Midwestern pediatric hospital-based institution. (N = 2.3 million unique patients ages 0–21 years). Correctional query words algorithm used in keyword supported search: (“incarcerated” OR “imprisoned” OR “jail” OR “prison” OR “sentenced” OR “parole” OR “probation”). All patient health characteristics are represented International Classification of Diseases Version 9 or Version 10 codes and the italicized words indicate the diagnostic keyword searched within the medical record unless the specific ICD/CPT code is listed. Diagnostic codes and characteristics are not mutually exclusive. *Number of patients with the given health characteristic and correctional keyword out of the total population. **Healthcare utilization was determined by current procedural terminology (CPT) codes