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Table 2 Facility-wide Monthly Rates of Disciplinary Events Involving Physical Violence (Per 100 incarcerated persons ) NDSP, JRCC, & Combined Pre-reform (January 2010–December 2015) vs. Post-Reform (January 2016–December 2019)

From: “We just needed to open the door”: a case study of the quest to end solitary confinement in North Dakota

  NDSP JRCC Combined
Indicator Monthly Mean p-value Monthly Mean p-value Monthly Mean p-value
All Violent Infractions
 Pre-reforms 2.85   2.17   3.50  
 Post-reforms 3.49 0.46 1.98 0.00* 3.44 0.66
Violence Against Staff
 Pre-reforms 0.24   0.16   0.23  
 Post-reforms 0.32 0.49 0.10 0.24 0.26 0.23
Fights among Residents
 Pre-reforms 1.29   2.91   1.89  
 Post-reforms 1.98 0.04* 2.44 0.32 2.15 0.93
Assaults between Residents
 Pre-reforms 0.70   0.75   0.71  
 Post-reforms 1.16 0.31 0.62 0.39 0.96 0.51