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Table 1 Baseline characteristics, bivariate associations and modified poisson regression associations for history of non-suicidal self-injury and history of suicide attempt among incarcerated men reporting recent regular injecting drug use prior to current sentence (n = 364)

From: Lifetime prevalence and correlates of self-harm and suicide attempts among male prisoners with histories of injecting drug use

  Total participants History of non-suicidal self-injury History of suicide attempts
n = 364 (%) n = 133 (%) ORa (95% CI) aORb (95% CI) n = 172 (%) ORa (95% CI) aORb (95% CI)
Socio-demographic
 Age
   ≤ 29 90 (25) 39 (29) 1.72 (1.16–2.54)* 1.53 (0.91–2.55) 40 (23) 1 1
  30–39 155 (42) 64 (48) 1.64 (1.14–2.35)* 1.46 (1.01–2.10)* 78 (45) 1.13 (0.86–1.50) 1.11 (0.82–1.51)
   ≥ 40 119 (33) 30 (23) 1 1 54 (32) 1.02 (0.75–1.38) 1.19 (0.81–1.75)
 Completed years of education
  ≤ 9 years 150 (41) 61 (46) 1 1 72 (42) 1 1
  ≥ 10 years 214 (59) 72 (54) 0.83 (0.63–1.08) 0.88 (0.66–1.19) 100 (58) 0.97 (0.78–1.21) 0.98 (0.77–1.23)
 Times moved accommodationc
  None 139 (38) 40 (30) 1 1 60 (35) 1 1
  1–2 94 (26) 35 (26) 1.29 (0.89–1.88) 1.35 (0.92–1.98) 44 (26) 1.08 (0.81–1.45) 1.16 (0.87–1.53)
  ≥ 3 131 (36) 58 (44) 1.54 (1.11–2.13)* 1.40 (1.01–1.95)* 48 (39) 1.20 (0.93–1.55) 1.13 (0.88–1.46)
 Employment status
  Continuous/intermittent 205 (56) 70 (53) 1 1 95 (55) 1 1
  Unemployed/mostly without work 159 (44) 63 (47) 1.16 (0.89–1.52) 1.08 (0.81–1.43) 77 (45) 1.05 (0.84–1.30) 0.96 (0.77–1.21)
 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
  No 304 (84) 107 (80) 1 1 139 (81) 1 1
  Yes 60 (16) 26 (20) 1.23 (0.89–1.71) 1.15 (0.83–1.61) 33 (19) 1.20 (0.93–1.56) 1.14 (0.87–1.50)
 Relationship status
  Single 228 (63) 81 (61) 1 1 105 (61) 1 1
  Married/regular partner 136 (37) 52 (39) 1.08 (0.82–1.42) 1.06 (0.81–1.39) 67 (39) 1.07 (0.86–1.33) 1.08 (0.87–1.34)
 Children with/without DHHS involvement
  No children 143 (39) 50 (38) 1 1 61 (35) 1 1
  Children without DHHS involvement 116 (32) 38 (28) 0.94 (0.66–1.32) 0.86 (0.60–1.22) 55 (32) 1.11 (0.85–1.46) 0.99 (0.76–1.30)
  Children with DHHS involvement 105 (29) 45 (34) 1.23 (0.89–1.68) 1.08 (0.80–1.47) 56 (33) 1.25 (0.96–1.62) 1.06 (0.82–1.37)
 Removed from family as child ever
  No 272 (75) 91 (68) 1 1 121 (70) 1 1
  Yes 92 (25) 42 (32) 1.36 (1.03–1.80)* 1.13 (0.86–1.50) 51 (30) 1.25 (0.99–1.56) 1.19 (0.93–1.53)
General health
 General health rating
  Excellent/good 275 (76) 95 (71) 1 1 123 (72) 1 1
  Fair/poor 89 (24) 38 (29) 1.24 (0.92–1.65) 1.08 (0.79–1.49) 49 (28) 1.23 (0.98–1.55) 1.05 (0.81–1.36)
 Intellectual disability
  No 326 (90) 112 (84) 1 1 149 (87) 1 1
  Yes 38 (10) 21 (16) 1.61 (1.16–2.22)* 1.27 (0.86–1.88) 23 (13) 1.32 (1.00–1.76) 1.24 (0.91–1.68)
Mental health
 Visited a mental health service ever
  No 47 (13) 10 (8) 1 1 13 (8) 1 1
  Yes 317 (87) 123 (92) 1.82 (1.03–3.22)* 1.47 (0.83–2.60) 159 (92) 1.81 (1.13–2.92)* 1.36 (0.86–2.16)
 Self-reported mood, anxiety psychotic & personality disorder
  No 82 (23) 16 (12) 1 1 20 (12) 1 1
  Yes 282 (77) 117 (88) 2.13 (1.34–3.37)* 1.65 (1.06–2.58)* 152 (88) 2.21 (1.49–3.29)** 1.80 (1.21–2.69)*
 GHQ-12 ≥ 3 (poor psychiatric well-being)
  No 205 (56) 59 (44) 1 1 77 (45) 1 1
  Yes 159 (44) 74 (56) 1.62 (1.23–2.12)* 1.40 (1.07–1.85)* 95 (55) 1.59 (1.28–1.98)** 1.39 (1.11–1.74)*
Substance use
 Illicit substances usedd
  Heroin 62 (17) 20 (15) 1 1 24 (14) 1 1
  Methamphetamine 140 (38) 49 (37) 1.24 (0.86–1.77) 0.98 (0.64–1.51) 67 (39) 1.24 (0.86–1.77) 1.26 (0.89–1.79)
  Heroin & methamphetamine 116 (32) 47 (35) 1.34 (0.93–1.91) 1.12 (0.74–1.69) 60 (35) 1.34 (0.93–1.91) 1.34 (0.95–1.89)
  Other 46 (13) 17 (13) 1.18 (0.76–1.84) 1.30 (0.75–2.24) 21 (12) 1.18 (0.76–1.84) 1.32 (0.86–2.00)
 Duration of injecting career
   ≤ 18 years 182 (50) 72 (54) 1 1 85 (49) 1 1
   > 18 years 182 (50) 61 (46) 0.85 (0.65–1.11) 0.98 (0.67–1.42) 87 (51) 1.02 (0.82–1.27) 0.93 (0.70–1.24)
 Number of overdoses
  None 151 (41) 41 (31) 1 1 56 (32) 1 1
  1–2 82 (23) 34 (25) 1.53 (1.06–2.20)* 1.43 (0.99–2.07) 44 (26) 1.45 (1.08–1.93)* 1.36 (1.01–1.82)*
   ≥ 3 131 (36) 58 (44) 1.63 (1.18–2.26)* 1.71 (1.21–2.42)* 72 (42) 1.48 (1.14–1.92)* 1.44 (1.10–1.89)*
 High risk alcohol usec
  No 265 (73) 97 (73) 1 1 119 (69) 1 1
  Yes 99 (27) 36 (27) 1.19 (0.95–1.50) 0.91 (0.67–1.24) 53 (31) 1.19 (0.95–1.50) 1.13 (0.89–1.42)
Criminal justice
 Juvenile incarceration
  No 201 (55) 68 (51) 1 1 96 (56) 1 1
  Yes 163 (45) 65 (49) 1.18 (0.90–1.54) 1.01 (0.74–1.38) 76 (44) 0.98 (0.78–1.22) 0.88 (0.69–1.13)
 Self-reported adult incarceration episodes
   ≤ 5 189 (51) 72 (54) 1 1 87 (51) 1 1
   > 5 175 (48) 61 (46) 0.92 (0.70–1.20) 0.82 (0.61–1.11) 85 (49) 1.06 (0.85–1.31) 0.98 (0.79–1.22)
  1. Note: P values: * = p value < 0.05; ** = p value < 0.001; aOR = Odds ratio; baOR = Adjusted odds ratio; collinearity was tested for, both multivariate models showed VIF < 4; cThe twelve months prior to current sentence; dThe week prior to current sentence