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Table 2 Domain one: justice organizations literature review

From: The role of the community health delivery system in the health and well-being of justice-involved women: a narrative review

Source Study Description Purpose Results
Justice
 Alper, M., Durose, M. R.,Markman, J. (2018). 2018 Update on Prisoner Recidivism: A 9-Year Follow-up Period (2005–2014). U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/18upr9yfup0514.pdf. A report that examines the post-release offending patterns of former prisoners and their involvement in criminal activity both within and outside of the 10 state where they were imprisoned. The Bureau of Justice Statistics analyzed the offending patterns of 67,966 prisoners who were randomly sampled to represent the 401,288 state prisoners released in 2005 Year after release in 30 states. Excluding probation and parole violations, 82.4% of prisoners released in 30 states in 2005 were arrested within 9 years.
 Bell ME, Perez S, Goodman LA, Dutton MA. Battered Women Perceptions of Civil and Criminal Court Helpfulness: The Role of Court Outcome and Process. Violence Against Women 2011; 17:71–88. A mixed methods study that utilized-3 questions using a Likert-type scale and eight open- ended interview questions with women who sought help from civil, criminal court and/or shelter. To reveal general categories of factors contributing to helpfulness of the court system as a whole from the perspective of women who have experienced intimate partner violence. For quantitative items overall, most women felt positive about their experience. Qualitative responses revealed two broad categories: court outcome issues and most responses were re-court process issues.
 Carson, E. A. (2018). Prisoners in 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/p16.pdf. A report of the National Prisoner Statistics program, which collects annual data from state departments of corrections and the Federal Bureau of Prisons on prisoner counts, characteristics, admissions, releases, and prison capacity. To provide prisoner counts and the percentage change in population of prisoners and jails. The number of prisoners under state and federal jurisdiction at year-end 2016 (1,506,800) was a 7% decrease (down 108,700 prisoners) from 2009 when the U.S. prison population peaked. Females made up 7% of the total national prison population at year-end 2016, an increase of more than 100 prisoners from 2015.
 Clear TR. Imprisoning Communities: How Mass Incarceration Makes Disadvantaged Neighborhoods Worse. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2007. A book that provides a thoughtful and provocative look at how “mass incarceration” has increased crime and other social ills in troubled neighborhoods. To provide evidence that demonstrates the effects of imprisonment on many neighborhoods. Clear calls for sentencing reform designed at ending mass incarceration, proposing fewer and shorter prison sentences in favor of community justice.
 Covington SS. Women and the Criminal Justice System. Women’s Health Issues17:180–182. The editorial highlights that women offenders are disproportionately women of color with health and mental health needs that require the development of comprehensive, coordinated services. Highlights the need for correctional facilities and community health care providers to work together and create a meaningful system of care. N/A
 Daly K. Discrimination in the Criminal Courts: Family, Gender, and the Problem of Equal Treatment*. Social Forces 1987; 66:152–175. The quantitative study evaluated 2004 defendants and analyzed the disposition of cases and sentence received by sex, marriage status, and dependents. To identify what explains the variability of socioeconomic effects across different court outcomes. Case severity, charge severity, type of the offense charged, and prior record for both men and women are treated differently based on their familial ties and responsibilities to others.
 Freudenberg N. Adverse Effects of US Jail and Prison Policies on the Health and Well-Being of Women of Color. Am J Public Health 2002; 92:1895–1899 (Freudenberg, 2002). Commentary To examines correctional processes that do little to nothing to address complex health, social, and economic issues that are only compounded by incarceration. Recommends there is a need to study the more fundamental causes underlying multiple disparities in multiple conditions. Interventions that are gender- specific by way of policy change targeting social processes will be key.
 Glaze LE. Correctional populations in the United States, 2011. 2012. Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. 11–13- 2017. A Report of correctional population in 2011. The report provides a summary data on the total population under the supervision of the adult correctional systems and highlights significant changes in the components of the population. The annual change in the total correctional population during 2008 was calculated as the sum of four components: the changes in the probation (up 36,446) and parole (up 6992) populations within 2008, the change in the jail population (up 5359), or the difference between the June 30 population in 2007 and 2008; and the change in the custody prison population (up 4967), or the difference between the December 31 populations in 2007 and 2008.
 Incarcerated Women and Girls. The Sentencing Project. 2015. 11-15-2017. The Sentencing Project is a leader in changing the way Americans think about crime and punishment. To highlight the profound change in the involvement of women within the criminal justice system There has been a 716% increase in the number of women incarcerated in the US since 1980.
 Kajstura A, Marigeon R. States of Women’s Incarceration: The Global Context. 2015. 10-1-2017. An online report that documents how women fare in the world’s carceral landscape. The report compares the incarceration rates for women of each U.S. state with the equivalent rates for countries around the world. Currently, prisons and jails in the U.S. confine approximately 206,000 women (at a rate of 127 per 100,000). Women should be a mainstay of any state policy discussions on the economic and effective use of incarceration if we hope to incarcerate fewer women.
 Kajstura, A. (2019). Women’s Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2019. Retrieved from https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2018women.html. A report on the systems of confinement. To provide a detailed look at where and why people are locked up in the U.S., and dispels some modern myths to focus attention on the real drivers of mass incarceration. The data makes it clear that ending the war on drugs will not alone end mass incarceration, though the federal government and some states have taken an important step by reducing the number of people incarcerated for drug offenses.
 Judging Science. Scientific Knowledge and the Federal Courts. Nat Med 1999; 5:979-980. Book Review. The book provides a guidance for judges tat include 1. Hypothesis set forth is testable; 2. Theory or technique has been peer reviewed 3. Practical rate of error must be considered. 4. Method/theory has gained general acceptance. The purpose is to review the guidance and its impact. There is a double edge to the suggested requirements. Having judges that are “scientifically literate” seems like a gain to ferret marginal science out but can be a barrier to admitting legitimate evidence in courtroom by field experts.
 Lyons T. Recovery Capital, Drug Policy and The Cycle of Incarceration. Practicing Anthropology 2010;32:41–44. A qualitative study utilizing the ethnographic and ecological perspective on prisoner re-entry. Applies lessons learned from the ethnographic literature to identify the elements of the Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities that are succeeding in keeping clients out of prison. An ethnographic and ecological perspective on prisoner’s re-entry demonstrates the limitations of programs, which solely target the individual and ignore the community and policy context.
 National Resource Center on Justice Involved Women (2016). Fact Sheet on Justice Involved Women in 2016. Retrieved from https://cjinvolvedwomen.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Fact-Sheet.pdf . A report of statistics on justice- involved women. To provide some basic facts about justice-involved women, and how they are different from their male counterparts. Women are more likely than men to commit property crimes such as larceny-theft and fraud, and are also more likely to commit drug offenses, including drug possession and trafficking and are less likely than men to have been convicted of a violent crime.
 Opsal TD. Women on Parole: Understanding the Impact of Surveillance. Women & Criminal Justice 2009;19:306–328. Qualitative interviews of 43 women and their perceptions of the parole system. To look at gender-specific approaches of re-entry processes that facilitate positive re-entry outcomes. The current parole model and the process produce feelings of fear, anxiety, and powerlessness.
 Opsal TD. Women on Parole: Understanding the Impact of Surveillance. Women & Criminal Justice 2009;19:306–328. A qualitative study that evaluated justice-involved women who explained how they perceived parole as a tool intended to monitor their actions as opposed to assist them in getting back on their feet. To explore how a group of 43 women re-entering their communities via parole. The findings demonstrate how parole produces feelings of fear, anxiety, and powerlessness in individuals and how this affects women newly released from prison who are working to regain control over their own lives.
 Richie BE, Freudenberg N, Page J. Reintegrating women leaving jail into urban communities: A description of a model program. Journal of Urban Health 2001; 78:290–303. A randomized control study of 700 inmates - one cohort received in jail services, seven other cohorts received in-jail services, and one-year post- release case management to evaluate which had a greater impact on. Incarceration policies are inextricably linked with living conditions in low- income urban communities. Jails are unique points of opportunity as a place for intervention implementation and leverage women’s receptiveness to that intervention. Interventions must be done at every level that includes empowerment approaches and community organizingstrategies. Women receiving the full Health Link services had a rearrests rate that was 21% lower than jail services only group (38% vs. 59%).
 Schram PJ, Koons-Witt BA, Williams FP, McShane MD. Supervision Strategies and Approaches for Female Parolees: Examining the Link Between Unmet Needs and Parolee Outcome. Crime & Delinquency 2006; 52:450–471 Case-control study of 546 female parolees from a western state who have just finished their parole terms or who had been terminated from parole between Nov1997- Feb1998. To examine the types of needs identified at intake from a sample of 546 female parolees. 65.2% of women were parole failures after 1-year release. 38% of the women were assessed for substance abuse needs. Of those identified as having a need, only 48% received some type of treatment.
 Smith DA, Visher CA. Street- Level Justice: Situational Determinants of Police Arrest Decisions. 1981; 29:167–177. Retrospective cohort pro-bit analysis of 742 police-citizen encounters from 1977 involving 24 police depts. To measure strength of association b/t arrest and location, bystander presence, race of the suspect, and sex of suspect. To estimate the direct effects of situational variables on the arrest probabilities are important to understanding but only approximates the complexity of the arrest process. Results provide the following: police do respond to the gravity of an offense, police are more likely to apply more formal sanctions against Blacks, the presence of bystanders increases the likelihood of arrest, and citizen input is reflected in police behavior.
 State, County, Municipal Courts., 2017. 10–18-2016. NA A description of the state, county, and municipal courts. N/A
 Swavola E, Riley K, Subramani an R. Overlooked: Women and Jails in an Era of Reform. Report [serial online] 2016;1–48 Available from Vera Institute of Justice. Accessed July 1, 2017. Report To offer a portrait of women in jail, explore how jail can deepen the societal disadvantages they face, and provide insight into what drives women’s incarceration and ways to reverse the trend. A foundation for reform exists and can potentially set the stage for further, well- crafted programs and practices to stem the flow of women cycling through the nation’s local jails. First, however, justice systems— both small and large—and community stakeholders must commit to bring women into the discussion.
 The Sentencing Project. Women in The Criminal Justice System: An Overview. 2007. 10–20-2017. A brief documenting the gender implications of changes that have occurred over the last 20 years within the criminal justice system. To highlight the rate of women’s incarceration calls for a critical evaluation of the social impact of our nation’s increasing reliance on correctional facilities to deal with women’s involvement in the crime. There is an increasing need for further consideration of the nature of women’s involvement in crime in order to respond appropriately to the personal and structural causes of their criminal behavior rather than relying solely on punitive responses.
 The United States Department of Justice. U.S. Parole Commission. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/uspc.    
 Zeng, Z. (2019). Jail Inmates in 2017. Retrieved from https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ji17.pdf. A report of the nationally representative survey of county or city jail jurisdictions and regional jails in the country. To track changes in the number and characteristics of local jail inmates nationwide, jail inmate turnover, jail capacity, and space usage by other authorities. From 2005 to 2017, the male incarceration rate decreased by 12%, from 448 to 394 per 100,000 male residents, while the female incarceration rate grew by 10%, from 63 to 69 per 100,000 female
residents.