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Table 1 Demographic and health utilization of patients identified by correctional/family keywords and all patients (ages 0–21) in electronic health record (EHR) database from February 2006–2020

From: Unjust: the health records of youth with personal/family justice involvement in a large pediatric health system

Patient Characteristics Patients with Correctional Keywords in the EHR
n = 51,855
All Patients in Database
N = 2,337,632
% of All Patients with Correctional Keyword*
(na/nb)
  na % nb % %
Gender
 Female 24,674 47.58% 1,155,026 49.40% 2.14%
 Male 27,167 52.39% 1,182,606 50.60% 2.30%
Age Range**
 0–4 years 6537 12.61% 224,158 9.60% 2.92%
 5–9 years 11,722 22.61% 288,067 12.30% 4.07%
 10–12 years 6913 13.33% 178,947 7.70% 3.86%
 13–18 years 13,911 26.83% 328,909 14.10% 4.23%
 19+ Years 12,764 24.61% 1,318,912 56.40% 0.97%
Race
 Black/African American 16,905 32.60% 309,130 13.20% 5.47%
 White 26,576 51.25% 1,204,313 51.50% 2.21%
 Unknown 2159 4.16% 687,911 29.40% 0.31%
 Multiple Race 4596 8.86% 53,089 2.30% 8.66%
 Asian Race 637 1.23% 36,514 1.60% 1.74%
 Other 141 0.27% 18,699 0.80% 0.75%
 Native Hawaiian 266 0.51% 13,756 0.60% 1.93%
 Refuse to Answer 2159 4.16% 9881 0.40% 21.85%
 American Indian or Alaskan Native 74 0.14% 5694 0.20% 1.30%
Ethnicity
 Not Hispanic or Latino 47,978 92.52% 1,607,625 68.80% 2.98%
 Hispanic or Latino 2353 4.54% 44,912 1.90% 5.24%
Health Insurance Coverage***
 Medicaid/SCHIP 45,479 87.70% 618,899 26.50% 7.35%
 Private/Commercial 13,986 26.97% 635,021 27.20% 2.20%
 Self-Pay 15,294 29.49% 176,528 7.60% 8.66%
 Other-Unknown 4896 9.44% 21,006 0.90% 23.31%
 Medicare 179 0.35% 5812 0.20% 3.08%
  1. Notes: Authors’ analysis of electronic health record data of a large Midwestern pediatric hospital-based institution. (N = 2.3 million unique patients ages 0–21 years). Correctional query words algorithm used in keyword supported search: (“incarcerated” OR “imprisoned” OR “jail” OR “prison” OR “sentenced” OR “parole” OR “probation”). *Number of patients with the given characteristic and a correctional keyword in their medical chart out of the total population. **Age range indicates current age of the youth in the system and not age at time of possible exposure to family history or personal history of correctional involvement. ***Health insurance coverage: counts do not add up as there can be multiple types of insurance used for visit/per patient