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Table 1 The ‘behavioral change techniques’ (BCTs) contained within Breaking Free from Substance Abuse

From: Associations between psychosocial risk factors, and changes in substance dependence and psychosocial functioning, during engagement with digital cognitive behavioral therapy for methamphetamine use: use of 'Breaking Free from Substance Abuse' by incarcerated people during the COVID-19 pandemic

Content in Breaking Free Online Description of strategy Therapeutic approaches underpinning strategies BCT taxonomy (V1) techniques
Baseline and progress check assessments Monitoring behavior to provide feedback about progress towards goals; Encouraging new behaviors via positive feedback Goal setting; self-monitoring Self-monitoring of behavior; Feedback on outcome(s) of behavior
Lifestyle Balance Model Generic formulation; Idiosyncratic formulation; Personalized feedback; Case formulation – understanding the links between situations, thoughts, emotions, behaviors, physical sensations and lifestyle Node-link mapping (International Treatment Effectiveness Project - ITEP); Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Information about antecedents; Information about health consequences; Salience of consequences; Information about social and environmental consequences; Information about emotional consequences
Difficult situations domain of LBM Assessment; Self-monitoring; Standardized measures; Psychoeducation on impact of problematic situations; Intervention to help people in distress access support; Recognize–avoid–cope; Relapse prevention for coping with environmental/situational/emotional triggers; Creating action plans on how to avoid or cope in high-risk situations Psychoeducation; Guided self-help; Relapse prevention; Refusal skills Social support (unspecified); Reduce negative emotions; Problem solving; Action planning; Instruction on how to perform the behavior; Behavioral practice/rehearsal; Behavior substitution; Avoidance/reducing exposure to cues for the behavior; Goal setting
Negative thoughts domain of LBM Psychoeducation on impact on negative thoughts; Mind traps; Cognitive restructuring; Challenging thoughts that may be unhelpful Psychoeducation; Guided self-help; Node-link mapping (International Treatment Effectiveness Project - ITEP); Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Information about antecedents; Information about health consequences; Salience of consequences; Information about social and environmental consequences; Information about emotional consequences; Re-attribution; Framing-reframing
Emotions domain of LBM Psychoeducation on impact on emotions; Attention narrowing; Attention switching; Emotional regulation; Recognizing/understanding/normalizing emotions; Developing more appropriate coping strategies Psychoeducation; Guided self-help; Coping strategy enhancement (CSE); Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy Information about antecedents; Information about health consequences; Salience of consequences; Information about social and environmental consequences; Information about emotional consequences; Behavioral practice/rehearsal; Reducing negative emotions; Problem solving; Social support (unspecified); Behavioral practice/rehearsal; Distraction
Physical sensations domain of LBM Psychoeducation on impact of physical sensations; Urge surfing; Body scanning; Relapse prevention-based techniques Psychoeducation; Guided self-help; Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy Information about antecedents; Information about health consequences; Salience of consequences; Information about social and environmental consequences; Information about emotional consequences; Instruction on how to perform a behavior; Behavioral practice/rehearsal; Reducing negative emotions
Unhelpful behaviors domain of LBM Psychoeducation on impact of destructive behaviors; Activity scheduling; Behavioral activation; Encouraging new behaviors via positive feedback; Increasing activity to increase energy levels and relieve boredom Psychoeducation; Guided self-help; Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Information about antecedents; Information about health consequences; Salience of consequences; Information about social and environmental consequences; Information about emotional consequences; Non-specific reward; Non-specific incentive; Reward approximation; Rewarding completion; Goal setting (behavior); Action planning
Lifestyle domain of LBM Psychoeducation on impact of lifestyle; Creating SMART goals for recovery; Goal setting;
Increasing treatment engagement and retention; Increasing readiness to change behavior
Psychoeducation; Guided self-help; Motivational enhancement therapy (MET); Implementation intentions Goal setting (behavior); Problem solving; Goal setting (outcome); Action planning; Non-specific reward; Focusing on past success